French, English, German and Italian scholars have monopolize the history of pharaohs

Egyptology..a science dominated by foreigners."part 3"

The sciences established by  mariet, maspiero and carter influenced archaeologists all over the world , this science also spread within the European continent. There is no longer a country or university without an Egyptology department , from northern Germany to southern Italy , from eastern Russia in Austria  to western England .There became a fond of Egypt and its civilization. Here the most important scientists of Egyptology in the west .


Flinders petrie


"Sir William Matthew Flenders petri",  an egyptology english scientist ,he was born in charlton, southeast London in 1853. Although he did not get any schooling, at the age of 8 he was able to receive his archeology learning by his parents at home in French, Latin and Greek. He gained prominence until he became a pioneer in the systematic approach of archaeology, so he dug  antiquities at several of the most important archaeological sites in Abydos and Amarna. He made his greatest discoveries when he discovered " merneptah monument", the 13th son of "Ramses ii".

Flinders petrie is the first Egyptology scientist to discover  the architectural methods of the construction of the pyramids in giza, and got the first precise measurements of the pyramid in 1880 by himself,He also did many excavations in this area where he discovered many tombs .In addition, he has done a number of research projects on archaeological excavation in Tanis, or Sah a Al-Hajar in Sharqia and Tal Nisha in Delta What qualifies him to get the title of cavalier in 1923 for his services in both fields of archaeology and Egyptology, especially after creating a special system for excavation for antiquities that still used so far.

In 1926, Flinders petrie directed his interests permanently to Palestine, and excavations began in several important sites in the south-western region of Palestine. In particular at Tal Al-Ojoul in Gaza. In 1933, once he retired from professorship, he moved with his wife permanently to Jerusalem . He then worked temporarily at the American school of Oriental researchs which now called  Albrait institute until he died, and was buried in Jerusalem as he willed.


The worst thing that has tainted the history of Flinders petrie, who began his life studying Egypt's pre-family history, is his constant attempts to judaize  the egyptian history.Despite his considerable contribution to establish the petri museum of Egyptian antiquities in Britain, in 1913 petri sold his large collection of egyptian antiquities which formed the meuseum to the academic college of London . He tried very hard to prove that the word "Yisserar" mentioned in the monument "Merneptah" is what came in the Torah as "Osriar" or "Oseriel" which means Israel, but his attempts went in vain when it was revealed that "Yusar" are tribes  of unknown origin , did not enter Egypt and live in southern Jordan .

Gardner Wilkinson


"Sir John Gardner Wilkinson", an english egyptology scientist ,was born in Little Mesnden, in bakinghamshir , in 1797. Although he got religious education, as a son of a great clergyman in westmorland, he has shown great love for archaeology. Because of his poor health, he had to travel to Italy in 1819, and there he met the classical archaeologist Sir William Jill Fers, thanks to him he grew in love with archaeology. In 1921, he decided to go to the oldest and most important historical country of archaeology "Egypt" ,he reached Egypt in October of the same year, at the age of 24.

Gardner Wilkinson lived in Egypt for only 12 years, during which he was able to record the ancient egyptians' behavior through drawings, inscriptions and public views on the walls of  cemeteries that belongs to the leading figures on the western mainland , what qualifies him as a "historian" of Egyptian customs, often referred to him as "father of British Egyptology ". He left to the people community several books about Egyptology, the most important of them was the series "the habits and customs of the ancient egyptians" which published in three volumes in 1837.


Carl lepsius


"Carl Richard lepsius",a german scientist of Egyptology ,he was born in Numburg in Saxonia, in 1810.  According to his great passion of archaeology,in 1833 he decided to move to the French capital of light"Paris" to hear a number of scientific lectures by the French scientist" Jean lettron" one of chamblion's most important students, and to study chamblion studies in hieroglyphs. He found that the vowels were not written and he became the first to read these symbols correctly, so he is considered the first to establish the science of "Egyptology".

In 1842, according to the recommendation of the German minister of education "Yohan Echorn" , king" Fredrich Wilhelm iv" ordered a rapid formation of a German mission just like Napoleon's mission to Egypt and Sudan to explore and record the remains of the ancient Egyptian civilization. During his journey, lepseus documented 67 pyramids, 130 pharaonic tombs of nobles , as well as decoding and summarizing a large number of hieroglyphic documents. Before leaving Egypt, he wrote a hieroglyphic text over the original doorway of the pyramid   honouring "fredrich Wilhelm iv" which can be seen even today.


The mission arrived in Thebes in November 1844, where they spent four months studying the west bank of the Nile river. The mission has explored its most important sites, in particular the temple of ramesom, the city of hapu and valley of the Kings, the mission has explored the karnak and luxor temples at the east bank, in an attempt to document as much as possible,they then stopped in the city of qafa in qena before returning to Europe in 1846.

In addition to the unique documents that lepseus had left behind about his expedition to the Nile valley, he produced an important volumes about this journey. He wrote important volumes about the trip, including nearly 900 Egyptian paintings, as well as associated comments and descriptions. These maps and temple paintings, walls and cemeteries painted with  pencil and chinese ink remained unique for being the main source of information throughout the twentieth century, so far they are useful  for being the only registry of the antiquities destroyed or reburied since then.


On his return to Berlin in 1846, he was appointed as professor of Egyptian science at the university of Berlin.During his mission he collected more than 1,500 artifacts formed the nucleus of the Egyptian museum, which was built for the offer of lepsius himself in Berlin.

The west alone


There are, of course, a large number of Egyptian pioneers, such as Nicola Franchesco Hipolito Baldasar Rossellini, who came to Egypt with an Italian archaeological expedition in 1828 and published a huge volume entitled "traces from Egypt and  Nouba" .The Swiss scholar Edward navil, who visited Egypt in 1865, and associated with solar texts, texts read by the egyptians to give them life by " Ra" the Egyptian sun-god for them.  The British chemist Alfred Lucas" Howard carter's assistant", who saved king Tut Ankh Amun and analyzed the various materials in the tomb. The Swiss scientist of Coptic language"Rudolf kaser" and the German scholar of Egyptology" Emile brugsh" who created the first dictionary of the ancient Egyptian language ,In addition to another geographical dictionary about  names of the  ancient Egyptian cities and  alot of  other western names.

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